The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. The intentionality of reforming the spelling was not to simply standardise the language but to also unify all Basque under a common understanding. Language standardization is often looked to by language communities as a means for language maintenance and strengthening cultural integrity, yet it may also contribute to varying degrees of linguistic discrimination and social conflict. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). Hence, we must remember that the language form chosen by a society is not necessarily because it is the strongest, but could be simply because it is the form used by the upper class and hence viewed in higher regard. “Political correctness’: The politics of culture and language.” Discourse &. Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). Secondly, the language then gains prestige within the society for being associated with those of high social status. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. We analyze a set of linguistic features with the aim of depicting the dynamics of intralinguistic and interlinguistic convergence as they relate to the ongoing standardization processes in these languages. It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. We use language and that language is a part of society. Accessed 6 March 2017. Having earned a BA in linguistics some time ago, and having made use of a lot of linguistic information in 23 years as a speech/language therapist, I have to disagree with a number of others who have answered this question. Chinese languages, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Some features of this site may not work without it. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Charlemagne mandated it for his whole empire. One example of standardization is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)GAAPGAAP, or Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, is a commonly recognized set of rules and procedures designed to govern corporate account… Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. Standardization of language course is considered very important in the process of language planning. For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. Alcuin brought in 'good Latin' because it came from books; it didn't have all the 'problems' that came from a language being spoken as a native tongue. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. Standardization is another scaling technique where the values are centered around the mean with a unit standard deviation. Received Pronunciation. language standardization, ther efore, is less about language itself as function and structure, than it is about ideologies and hegemonies about lang uage, or what is called “language ideology”. Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. With that perspective, we shall move to a unique, nation-wide territory where smaller-scale language standardisation took place: Basque Country. People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. 3.3 The Process of Language Standardization Standardization is a necessary and vital process in any language. Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. It is important to note that these stages are hypothetical, and can sometimes overlap with one another. Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. Software languages will evolve over time just like software applications do. Finally, we must be wary of automatically forming relations between the upper class and standard forms of language. Is the process of development of a standard for written and/or oral language It occurs in a specific manner that depends on the community and the social, historical and geographic aspects involved. Modern trends for standardization Current orthography represents two major centers of standardization: British and American English. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. This essentially re-emphasises that language standardisation is a process, not an end-result. Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as The concern surrounding language variation dates back to the 16th century, where the first attempt for language standardisation was made. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. John Benjamins, 2004. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. Thus, it is crucial to understand that the standard language forms are not universal, and they can still have varieties across different regions. Learn more. selection and codification) as well as the social and communicative functions of language (status planning, i.e. Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. 2010. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. The growth in industrial technologies signified a great deal of cooperation between individuals of different skillsets, and effective collaboration could only occur when both parties speak and write the same standard language. Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy. Vol. It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. What is language standardisation? Some might feel that the standard form of a society was chosen because it is superior to all other options. New versions with new features will be released, and software teams will need to make important decisions. "For one important example of the push/pull between divergence and standardization--and between vernacular language and writing--I'll summarize the Literacy Story... about Charlemagne, Alcuin, and Latin. As such, standard forms of language can differ at different points in time, even within the same society. One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION HOW AND WHY Admilson F. S. Silva Luiz de Castro 2. Milroy, James. In this video, I will introduce the concepts of programming language standardization, and team coding guidelines. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects … This leads to segregation between those who speak language in the ‘correct’ way and those who do not, labelling them as outsiders (Milroy 535). In line with the said, the stands of several linguists about the a/s phenomena are presented as the For instance, the development of a ‘standard’ form of language creates assumptions about the ‘correct’ way to use language, which is then understood to be ‘common-sense’ and common knowledge. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason. "The interaction of power, language, and reflections on language inextricably bound up with one another in human history, largely defines language standardization. Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). John Benjamins Publishing, 2004. Thus, those who refuse or cannot acquire the standard language properly are marginalised in the society, further widening the language gap. Development in these areas create pressure to establish regularity in other areas, such as currency and language, to facilitate and increase efficiency in communication between countries. For instance, the use of double negatives – ‘that won’t do you no good’ – is deemed confusing, redundant and incorrect by the masses. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. Accessed 1 April 2017. In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect—is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. We need not thinkof them as being chronological. However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. What motivations were there for language standardisation? Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. Deumert, Ana. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a society has an existing cultivation of their own language and communicative methods. A Little Book of Language. Latin didn't diverge much till the end of the Roman empire in the fifth century, but then as it lived on as the spoken language throughout Europe, it began to diverge somewhat into multiple 'Latins.' The standard language is a planned and designed unitary referential variant the purpose of which is to provide cultural, political, and social cohesion on the territory on which it is official. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … Updated January 08, 2019. Variability is a fact of life for almost all languages. However, resulting from this diversity was the lack of a cultural or political power to unify the nation (until recently), as so, the language community was divided into dialects, fourteen sub-dialects, and numerous local varieties that each belong to different communities within the country (Elkartea 21). Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situationalvarieties. What Is Koineization (or Dialect Mixing)? The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. Such system is then regarded as the absolute legitimate and “correct” standard of language, and hence, is esteemed above everyday speakers of the language. A social history of English. Codification:. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. Establishing a standard language ultimately shapes the standard ‘reality’ of the people (Fairclough 203-4). Routledge, 2000. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Thus, we can see that language standardisation is not only concerned with linguistic and literary goals, but also largely fuelled by economics, trade, and enterprise (Milroy 534-535). The term re-standardization refers to the ways in which a language may be reshaped by its speakers and writers. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. in aspects of writing, reading, and speaking), while 80% agreed that learning and using the standard Basque was necessary for work and for everyday life. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. These steps or stages in corpus development are also seen as paralleled by policy development, and some analysts enumerate these steps in language policy planning (Eastman 1983:12): . Language educators were also deeply motivated to teach the standard Basque. He had stressed on the fact that “Basque should move towards unification, and unification should commence chiefly with matters of form” (Elkartea 36). Authority In Language. Actually, any language varies according to , the nature of the society, what kind of people, and their attitudes. 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